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Every Student Succeeds Act Title I

Our History

In 1994 Project Appleseed Advised the White House on the creation of the first parental involvement provisions of Title I of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act.

Title I

Parent & Family Engagement

 Every Student Succeeds Act 

Title I Parent and Family Engagement
Every Student Succeeds Act 

The Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA) serves as the latest reauthorization of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 (ESEA) which was last reauthorized in 2002 as the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB). Since its inception, the intent of the law has been to raise achievement for low-income and otherwise disadvantaged children. Parent and family engagement and consultation have always been a key piece of the law, focused on the low income parents of “Title I-participating” children. We know that gaps in educational opportunity and achievement will only be remedied when those closest to the affected students – parents, families, and communities – are driving decisionmaking. This brief seeks to provide advocates with a full overview of the ESSA’s requirements, and opportunities, for parent, family and community engagement.

Title I Section 1118

Parent and Family Engagement Policies

In order to receive Title I funds, districts must conduct outreach to parents and family members and must implement programs, activities and procedures for the involvement of parents and families in Title I funded activities . Each district must jointly develop with and distribute to families, in a language they can understand, a written parent and family engagement policy. The engagement policy must be periodically updated to reflect the needs of families and be incorporated into the district plans described above. Title I-receiving schools in the district must also distribute parent and family engagement policies agreed to by the parents.


School Districts: The district parent and family engagement policy must describe how the district will:

Involve parents in the joint development of the district plan;

  • Provide the support necessary to assist schools in implementing effective family engagement activities;

  • Conduct an annual evaluation of the effectiveness of the policy in improving the academic quality of Title I schools, including identifying barriers to greater participation by families, (especially family members who are economically disadvantaged, disabled, have limited English proficiency, have limited literacy, or are a racial or ethnic minority) and use the findings to design strategies to support successful school and family interactions and revise engagement policies; and

  • Involve families in schools activities, which may include establishing an advisory board to develop, revise and review the engagement policy.


Title I Schools: The school parents and family engagement policy must describe how the school will:

  • Convene an annual meeting, at a convenient time to which all parents of low-income students are invited and encouraged to attend, to inform parents that their school receives Title I funds, that these funds come with requirements, and that parents have a right to be involved;

  • Offer a flexible number of engagement meetings at convenient times for families (for which the school may provide transportation, child care, or home visits using Title I funds);

  • Provide parents and families with:​

    • Information about Title I-funded programs;

    • An explanation of the curriculum and achievement levels the school uses; and

    • If requested, opportunities for regular meetings to participate in decisions relating to the education of their student.

Compacts and Pledges

  • Jointly develop with parents of low-income students a school-parent compact that outlines how families, school, staff and students will share the responsibility for improved student academic achievement and develop a partnership to help students achieve state standards.

    • The compact must:

      • Describe the school's responsibility to provide high-quality curriculum and instruction in a supportive and effective learning environment that enables students to meet the academic achievement standards, and the ways in which each parent will be responsible for supporting learning, including volunteering in their child’s classroom, and participating in decisions relating to the education of their children;

      • Address the importance of communication between families and staff through, at a minimum:

        • parent-teacher conferences in elementary schools, at least annually, during which the compact will be discussed as the compact relates to the individual child's achievement;

        • frequent reports to parents on their children's progress; and

        • opportunities to volunteer in or observe their child's class

      • Ensure regular two-way meaningful communication between family members and school staff in a language they understand. 

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Project Appleseed
Every Student Succeeds Act Title I

In a U.S. Department of Education study, a majority of Title I schools indicate that compacts help promote family involvement. Title I principals were asked to rate the helpfulness of compacts in achieving different types of school and family outcomes. Responses tended to differ by school poverty, with the highest-poverty schools finding compacts most helpful.In the highest-poverty schools, 85 percent of principals found Title I compacts helpful in supporting homework completion.


  • About 8 out of 10 principals in high-poverty Title I schools rated compacts as helpful, as did a majority of principals in low-poverty schools.

  • Across all schools, about 30 percent of the principals considered compacts “very helpful”.

  • Principals perceived compacts as having the greatest impact on homework completion, school climate, student discipline, and reading at home—factors that are amenable to intervention by school-family partnership activities.


Where to Start with Title I Engagement?

Use the Parent Engagement Pledge and supersize your school's parent engagement. Project Appleseed's Family Engagement Toolbox is designed for educators and parent leaders who strive to increase family engagement. The Toolbox is aligned with the Six Slices of Parental Involvement. By purchasing the Toolbox, your schools can organize parent responsibility with an effective researched based program - that meets district and state mandates and best practices.

Title I Schools:

  • Ensure effective involvement of parent and support a partnership among the school, parents and the community to improve student academic achievement by the following required and allowed activities:


  • Required:

    • Providing assistance to parents in understanding such topics as the state’s academic standards, state and local academic assessments, the requirements of Title I and how to monitor a child's progress and work with educators ;

    • Providing materials and training to help parents to work with their children to improve their children's achievement;

    • Educating school personnel, with the assistance of parents, in the value and utility of the contributions of parents, and in how to reach out to, communicate with, and work with parents as equal partners;

Project Appleseed
  • Integrating engagement strategies with other federal and state programs including preschool programs;

  • Ensuring that information related to programs, meetings, and other activities is sent to parents in a format and a language the parents can understand;

  • Providing other reasonable support for engagement activities;

  • Providing opportunities for the informed participation of families with limited English proficiency or disabilities, and families of migratory children in a format and language they understand; and

  • Providing reasonable support for parental involvement activities as parents request them.​

  • Allowed (note that although these activities are not required they provide parents and families with an opportunity to engage school and district leaders to advocate for the specific engagement activities they want to see in schools and serve as partners in carrying out the programs):

    • Involving parents in the development of engagement training for school personnel;

    • Paying reasonable and necessary costs associated with engagement activities including transportation and child care costs, to allow parents to participate;

    • Training parents to enhance the engagement of other parents;

    • Arranging school meetings or conduct in-home conferences between teachers and parents who are unable to attend such conferences at school;

    • Implementing model approaches to improving parental involvement;

    • Establishing a districtwide parent advisory council to improve engagement

    • Developing roles for community-based organizations and businesses in activities.



Title I Parent and Family Engagement Set: Each district is required to reserve at least one percent of its Title I funds to carry out parent and family engagement activities, including those described in the written policy section below. Ninety (90) percent of these “set-aside” funds must be distributed to schools, with priority given to “high-need” schools. The law further requires that parents and family members of low-income students must be included in decisions regarding how these engagement funds are spent.

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These parent and family engagement funds must be used for at least one of the below activities:

  • Supporting schools in training school staff regarding engagement strategies;

  • Supporting programs that reach families at home, in the community and at school;

  • Disseminating information on best practices focused on engagement, especially for increasing engagement of economically disadvantaged families;

  • Subgranting to schools to collaborate with community-based organizations or businesses that have a track record of improving family engagement; or

  • Engaging in any other activities that the district believes are appropriate in increasing engagement.


A state must provide an assurance in its state plan that it will provide school districts and schools with effective parent and family engagement strategies.


Parent and Family Engagement Provisions in the Every Student Succeeds Act

Title IV Statewide Family Engagement Centers: Federal grants will be awarded to statewide organizations to establish statewide family engagement centers to:


  • Assist parents in participating effectively in their children’s education and helping their children meet state academic standards;

  • Develop and implement, in partnership with the state, statewide policy to provide services that will help to remove barriers for family engagement; and

  • Develop and implement parental involvement policies required in the ESSA.



State Plans: In order to receive funding under Title I, each state must submit a state plan to the U.S. Department of Education (ED). The law lays out requirements for developing the plan and what the plan must contain. ED has the authority to approve, deny, or ask a state to revise the plan. The department can also take action when states fail to comply with their own approved plans. When developing plans, states must meaningfully consult with parents (among other stakeholders). States must allow the public at least 30 days to comment on the plan before submitting plans to ED for review. As part of his or her role in evaluating the plans, the Secretary of Education must establish “peer-review teams” to review submitted state plans. The teams include a variety of representatives, and parents are listed among those to be included.


State Report Cards: States must develop and provide to the public annual report cards that include information about the education provided in the state’s schools. State report cards must be developed in consultation with parents and information must be provided in a language that parents understand.


District Plans: Each district must submit a plan to the state. The law lays out requirements for developing the plan and what the plan must contain. The state has the authority to approve, deny, or ask a district to revise its plan. The state can also take action when districts fail to comply with their own approved plans. When developing plans, districts must meaningfully consult parents of children in schools receiving Title I funds. District plans must describe the strategies the district will employ to meet the parent and family engagement requirements. If the district plan is not satisfactory to the parents of low-income students, the school district must submit any parent comments to the state.


School Support and Improvement Plans: School districts, after being notified that a school is identified as in need of “comprehensive support and improvement,” must develop and implement.


School Support and Improvement Plans: School districts, after being notified that a school is identified as in need of “comprehensive support and improvement,” must develop and implement a a plan for the school to improve student outcomes in partnership with parents and other stakeholders. Schools, after being notified that their school is in need of “targeted support and improvement,” must also develop and implement a plan for the school, in partnership with parents and other stakeholders, to improve student outcomes.


Title I Funded Activities: Title I-funded activities themselves must be planned and implemented with meaningful consultation with parents of low-income children.


As is the clear intent throughout the Every Student Succeeds Act, parents and communities have the right to engage and help drive, financial, programmatic and policy decisions. Although legally required engagement and consultation is enumerated in the law, parents and communities should seek to be involved far beyond those instances. The successful implementation of the Every Student Succeeds Act and progress towards educational equity for all students depends on the meaningful inclusion of the parents and communities that represent students who are lowincome, of color, English learners, Native Americans, immigrants, or who have a disability.


Reprinted from the Leadership Conference Education Fund.


Parent Engagement Research

Research has long documented the link between student poverty and low general academic performance. The link is so well-established that a mythology has risen around it: that students in poverty are destined for low academic achievement. Although most educators reject this myth, high-poverty schools do face real challenges. Research suggests that such schools have difficulty attracting and retaining highly trained and experienced staff, lack many of the learning resources that low-poverty schools may have, and face added health and welfare challenges that come with poverty. (Kannapel, P. J., & Clements, S. K., with Taylor, D., & Hibpshman, T. 2005).


Family, school, and community engagement in education should be an essential strategy in building a pathway to college-­‐ and career-­‐readiness in today’s competitive global society. Research repeatedly correlates family engagement with student achievement, yet this strategy is rarely activated as an integral part of school reform efforts. Now is the time to transform family engagement strategies so that they are intentionally aligned with student learning and achievement.

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