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Site-Based Management

Project Appleseed

Site-based or school-based management shifts decision making authority from the central office to the schools. It reverses a trend, evident at least since the mid - 1960's, to try to improve school performance through general-purpose instructures of public policy - regulation, mandate, enforcement, and legal action. According to the theory of site-based management, all decisions of educational consequence are to be made at the school and none may be compelled by regulation in the district. In practice however, it may be understood as a relative term, i.e., as an increase in the number or importance of decisions made at the school level.


1. Under the concept of the principal as a site manager, the principal controls school resources and is held accountable for the success of the school. This view of the principal as the site manager was reinforced by the school effectiveness literature's focus on site leadership.


2. Under the philosophy of lay control, parents control site policy because they are the consumers and care most deeply about policies at schools their children attend. Parent school-site councils deliberate and decide on school level policy.


3. Under school-site policymaking by teachers, teachers form a school-site senate and allocate funds and personnel as well as decide instructional issues. School-site policymaking by teachers also enhances the professional image and self-concept of teachers.


4. Under a philosophy of parity, no one party should control the school entirely. Teachers, administration, and parents should have parity on a school-site council that reaches agreement through bargaining and coalitions. At the high school level, students may be included. All factors deserve a place at the table, and the best arguments should prevail.

Using Total Quality Management Principles To Implement School-Based Management


by Paul M. Terry, ERIC


Those engaged in school restructuring can find direction in the philosophy of W. Edwards Deming, which has guided the operations of many American corporations. This paper provides an overview of Deming's Fourteen Points of Total Quality Management (TQM) and discusses their applications to education. To develop a successful TQM system, the school needs a clear plan of action for reaching long- and short-term goals, staff training, quality improvement teams, management involvement, and continual assessment. Schools using TQM have reported improved test scores, reduced dropout rates, and curricular innovations. The principles of TQM have broad applications in education and have the potential to produce positive results. School improvement becomes a continual process that created an environment characterized by unity, change, and trust.

Get Project Appleseed's Parental Involvement Toolbox!
Project Appleseed

Project Appleseed's Parental Involvement Pledge is the primary tool in the Parental Involvement Toolbox. The Toolbox is the point of enrollment that schools take to become involved in Project Appleseed. The Toolbox is designed for educators and parent leaders who strive to increase and mobilize family engagement to improve student outcomes. Schools organize parent responsibility with an effective model that is research based, meets district and state mandates Title I and best practices. 

Use the Pledge to celebrate Project Appleseed's 

National Parental Involvement Day and Public School Volunteer Week!

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